Numerical skills and dyscalculia From basic research to practice…
Information about the children’s family background (i.e., family income, parents’ education level and housing type) was collected using questionnaires that were distributed to parents throughout the year. Bentenuto A., Perzolli S., de Falco S., Venuti P. The emotional availability in mother-child and father-child interactions in families with children with autism spectrum disorder. The investigators contacted and presented the study to the team “Adoção, Acolhimento Familiar e Apadrinhamento Civil” of the Social Services of the Algarve region . This team directly contacted and presented the objectives and the methodology of the study to all adoptive families of the south region.
Assessments of children’s FMS, academic achievement, EF and non-verbal intelligence were conducted between February and September in their first year of kindergarten. These measures were administered to the participating children at their kindergartens as part of a larger task battery, by trained research assistants. The measures were divided into five sets, with each set taking 40 to 60 minutes to complete. Each task was administered individually to the child. Data were collected from each child over two days to several weeks, depending on the arrangements with each kindergarten.
We also included two complex measures of EF commonly used to index children’s EF in the context of behavioural self-regulation. The dependent measures for all tasks were computed such that higher scores reflected better EF ability. As with motor skills, the cerebellum is ascribed a key role in linguistic skills and language-related tasks such as reading. Language disorders such as dyslexia have been proposed to arise from structural or functional cerebellar anomalies, such as with the neural circuit implicated in the procedural learning of language including the Broca’s area, cerebellum and PFC. Parents were asked to choose a place in which they usually interact with their child. A camera with a tripod was installed, and the parents were asked to play and interact with their child normally.
New investigations that focus on the relationship between EA in adoptive families and the attachment of children are needed. It is important to consider both mother-child and father-child dyads, in a wide range of adoptive child´s ages. Interestingly, studies in adoptive families have mainly focused on mother-child dyads and rarely on the father-child dyad (see for exceptions ). Studies of the father-child dyad in non-adoptive families are also scarce (see for exceptions ). Accordingly, little is known about the relationship between EA and attachment within the father-child dyadic interaction.
Table 2. Descriptive statistics and correlations among study variables
The present study examines the interaction between FMS and EF in the concurrent prediction of maths, reading and spelling skills at the start of kindergarten. We hypothesize that, controlling for socio-economic status , age, time spent in kindergarten and intelligence, academic performance will be predicted by the interaction between FMS and EF. We expect this interaction to be more evident in early academic domains with higher EF and/or FMS demands, such as spelling and maths, compared to reading. We further explore the nature of the interaction to examine the extent to which good FMS compensates for poor EF . On the one hand, good FMS may compensate for poor EF, such that the impact of EF on academic performance is attenuated in children with higher fine motor proficiency. On the other hand, good EF may buffer against the impact of poor FMS, such that the impact of FMS on academic performance is attenuated in children with higher EF.
JSON object This item is supported on Linux platform only. Establishing bridges between the findings from cognitive neurosciences and teaching practice has not been systematically achieved. However, many researchers interested in this area agree on the positive impact that knowledge on how the brain learns has on teaching practices and educational policies.
The total number of correct responses in the congruent and incongruent conditions were recorded. Cronbach’s alpha for the congruent and incongruent trials biggest penny stock gainers were .82 and .89, respectively. Correlations between secure representations of attachment and emotional availability for mothers and fathers .
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Lovas G.S. Gender and patterns of emotional availability in mother-toddler and father-toddler dyads. Veríssimo M., Salvaterra F. Maternal secure-base scripts and children’s attachment security in an adopted sample. Hjern A., Palacios J., Vinnerljung B. Can adoption at an early age protect children at risk from depression in adulthood? Waters T.E.A., Ruiz S.K., Roisman G.I. Origins of secure base script knowledge and the developmental construction of attachment representations. Biringen Z., Fidler D., Barrett K., Kubicek L. The emotional availability scales to children with disabilities.
And J.-C.G.; writing—review and editing, A.S.A., S.M., J.-C.G., C.N. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. We thank Cátia Viegas and the team “Adoção, Acolhimento Familiar e Apadrinhamento Civil” of the Social Services of the Algarve, Lília Silva, and all the participants who generously shared their time and experience. The study would not have been possible without their support and participation.
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Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations. For more information please visit our Permissions help page. Total , free, used, pfree , pused In case of a mounted volume, disk space for local file system is returned. The start line and end line parameters are supported from version 2.2. The start line, end line and output parameters are supported from version 2.2. Encoding – code page identifier Returns an empty string if the file is empty or contains LF/CR characters only.
The sampling locations were situated in areas with a good mix of kindergartens run by the four main service providers (Ministry of Education, government-subsidized providers, private not-for-profit and private for-profit centres). In Singapore, kindergartens provide half-day programmes with a typical programme length of three to four hours. The macro is supported on Windows since Zabbix 6.0. Vfs.fs.get List of mounted filesystems, their types, disk space and inode statistics.
- Barone L., Ozturk Y., Lionetti F. The key role of positive parenting and children´s temperament in post-institutionalized children´s socio-emotional adjustment after adoption placement.
- Thus, for a child with more advanced FMS, an academic task may impose a smaller cognitive load compared to a child still struggling with fine motor control.
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- Swanson et al. used the strange situation procedure during 10 min of free play interaction and found a negative relationship between maternal non-intrusiveness and disorganized attachment of the respective children.
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They also highlight the importance of EA of new attachment figures in interactions with their child. Additionally, the results confirm that children with discontinuous trajectories (e.g., from biological family, institutionalization, and to adoptive family) can construct secure representations of attachment. Previous studies have identified gender, child’s age, child’s age when adopted (see ), and the time elapsed since adoption (see ) as important factors in adoption adjustment.
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Each Mixed block comprised 30 trials, where the Shape rule predominated . A combined accuracy and reaction time score was calculated according to the formulae provided in the NIH Technical Manual. Based on accuracy data, Cronbach’s alpha for the switch and non-switch trials were .63 and .94, respectively. The target arrow appeared on its own or was flanked on either side by two arrows facing the same or the opposite direction . In each trial, children were asked to identify, by key press, the direction the target arrow was facing. The first block consisted of 28 neutral trials, followed by two pure blocks of 28 congruent, 28 incongruent trials, or vice versa, to counterbalance possible order effects.
The automatization of subroutines (e.g., as schemas or action scripts) reduces the mental load or demands of the task on the limited capacity. For example, essential elements of finger-counting include basic knowledge of the numbers involved, correspondence between number and finger representation, seriation, and fine motor control and coordination of the hands and fingers. In older children, these separate elements would have come to be incorporated within one schema for finger-counting and no longer need to be processed individually in working memory.
Taken together, these variables explain 19% and 42% of the variance in the security of the adopted child attachment representations. Ziv et al. evaluated the impact of a program based on the attachment construct to improve the dyadic EA of mothers and children (aged 3–6 years). They observed significant differences between pre- and post-intervention in maternal sensitivity and structuring, as well as in the responsiveness and involvement of children in relation to their mothers. These results highlight the important association between these two constructs. This association is of particular importance in adoptive families, where new emotional relationships and interactions will emerge . Simple slopes showing significant interactions between executive functions and fine motor skills in mathematics and spelling .
3. Emotional Availability and Attachment in Adoptive Families
Most of the contacted families (80%) accepted to participate in the study, and the social services departments then transmitted their contact details to the investigators. The investigators contacted the families, presented again the objective and methodology of the study to them, sent them a questionnaire, and these families were asked to how much to start swing trading sign the informed consent form. During the visit , the investigators first collected the already filled tests, and then videotaped the adult-child dyadic interactions and the Child Attachment Story Completion Task. Infant attachment representations were evaluated with the Portuguese version of the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT; ).